Литературите ни. Романът на Изтока със Запада в балканските литератури
Автор: Евдокия Борисова
Шуменски университет „Епископ Константин Преславски” ФАКУЛТЕТ ПО ХУМАНИТАРНИ НАУКИ
SERIES ACADEMICA 21
Научен редактор: проф. д-р Пламен Димитров Шуликов
Рецензенти: проф. д-р Веселин Божков Панайотов проф. д.ф.н. Добрин Начев Добрев
Коректор: гл. ас. д-р Грета Живкова Стоянова
Университетско издателство „Епископ Константин Преславски“,
OUR LITERATURES. THE ROMANCE BETWEEN EAST AND WEST IN BALKAN LITERATURES
Abstract: The conceptualisation of world literature is impossible without comparative literary studies. There is a number of questions which arise in the process, such as: How many comparative literary studies are there? Is there an all-inclusive classification and periodisation of Romanesque, Anglo-saxon, Turkic or Slavic literatures, and what is the place of Balkan literatures in the world literature? To what extent do Balkan literatures have a common, easily definable (or vague and amorphous) subject? And how exactly geopolitics gives rise to geopoetics? What is the place of the Literary Balkans in the world literary process? What do Balkan literatures have in common, and what lies beyond the dividing lines of national identity and indigenous languages? Are they unique, or do they share common themes and storylines?
Do national literatures in the Balkans exist at all? What do we understand by Bulgarian, Turkish, Serbian, Albanian, Greek or Romanian literature? Are they autonomous literatures, or are they just self-contained inner currents which in their isolation communicate better with the adjacent literatures and cultures? Don't texts from Bulgarian, Turkish or Albanian literatures have more in common than all texts belonging to Bulgarian literature? All these questions are addressed in the present book symptomatically called Our literatures. The romance between East and West in Balkan literatures. The first part of the title - Our Literatures - aims at overcoming Balkan literatures', and more specifically Bulgarian literature's, provincial inferiority complex, and advocates their universalisation and inclusion into a much wider cultural context. The second part - The romance between East and West in Balkan literatures - clarifies the interpretation of Bulgarian literature through the prism of the Balkan literary context.
In this context, Orhan Pamuk's metaphor and his conviction of the existence, at least in Turkish literature, of a novel about the East and the West is supported by the literary and the historical traditions of the East and the anthropological, culturological, Oriental and Occidental ideas of the West. This provoked me to look for a similar phenomenon in Bulgarian literature. Hence, the attempt to read Bulgarian literature in the Balkan literary context and to compare Yovkov with Ivo Andrich and Nikos Kazantzakis; Ismail Kadare with Angel Karaliychev and Pencho Slaveykov; Vera Mutafchieva with Ivo Andrich and Orhan Pamuk; Konstantin Konstantinov, Angel Karaliychev and Atanas Dalchev with Said Faik, Orhan Pamuk, Elias Canetti. Thus the novel of the East and the West became the romance of the East with the West. Thus, conceptualised as a genre of modernity, European identity and prestige, yet transformed in the genre and metaphoric post-modern interpretation of Northrop Frye, the novel-romance of the East with the West conceptualises the co-existence of Balkan literatures and cultures enveloped in common motifs, story lines, character types, themes, emotional explications, names, gestures and culture codes. These intersections and subtle intertwining of common motifs and images involve:
- the cultural hero, such as the Warrior, the Master and the Teacher, and the closely related with them myth of death. Part of this myth is the Dead Brother, who is a mediator between the world of the living and the world of the dead, between the native and the foreign. Here also belong the motifs or cultural myths of those who cannot be separated by Death, the myth of incest, and the myth of building living people into structures' walls.
- the twin myths, as the other axis around which a number of Balkan stories evolve. An example of such a myth is the motif of the Double in the dichotomy story lines of unification and opposition.
- the eschatological myths as the third core of the Balkan cultural mythology. They depict the image of Paradise: The plain and the mountain, as opposed to the sea and the river, as well as the clash of matriarchal and paternalistic ideas. Part of this myth is the image of the garden as an enclosed private space of one's home, town or family, similar to the Garden of Eden.
- Similar function is played by the civilising exterior space of the City the key topoi of creation, dialogue and communication - the Road, the Bridge, the Temple and the Home, all of which are modifications of the World Tree.
Chapter 1 focuses on the Silent literary dialogues in the Balkans, looking into the literary map and identification markers of the peninsular culture; the Balkan national utopia and storylines, as well as the Balkan literary stereotypes, demons and anxieties, thematic dominants and cliches in the texts of Balkan literatures, which are discussed in the light of literary comparative studies, contactology and imagology and supported with the ideas of Fernand Braudel, Vesna Goldsworthy, Maria Todorova, Edward Said, Anthony Smith and other scholars who study the Balkans and the Orient.
Chapter 2 is dedicated to the Romance of the East with the West, the Otherness and the Double in three Balkan novels - The Case of Cem by Vera Mutafchieva, The Damned Yard by Ivo Andrich and The White Castle by Orhan Pamuk. It conceptualises identity and literary influences in the cultural, historical, ideological and critical interpretations of prominent Balkan authors. These authors are interested in historical narratives and existential interpretations of the otherness, the death and the double, the female perspective in history, the borders and love; motifs which are typical of the Western literary tradition as well.
Chapter 3 offers a seemingly private interpretation of two very different in their genre and historical affiliation literary works, which are united by the common theme of the Song of the Dead Brother. The two works offer the Balkan version of Magical Realism, where the Brother and the Sister are the East and the West, The Victim and The Salvation, respectively. A comparison is made between Pencho Slaveykov's The Plague Victims and Ismail Kadare's Who Brought Doruntina back? The generalisations about the victim and salvation as the Balkans' lot and cultural destiny reach out to the stereotypes of Balkan patriarchal incest relationships between the native and the foreign, which can frequently change their places.
Chapter 4 defines the Balkan literary gardens in several Bulgarian, Turkish, and Greek narratives: Yordan Yovkov's Balkan gardens, Vera Mutafchieva's Garden to return to, Orhan Pamuk's Garden-state and Garden-letter, Halikarnas Balikcisi and Nikos Kazandzakis' Gardens near the sea and Island-gardens. Does an island also belong to the Balkans? What are the metaphors of the Balkans and the metamorphoses of the peninsula in the texts of these authors, and how do they fit in with the global Enlightenment culturological interpretation of the Balkans as the cradle of European civilisation?
Chapter 5 is dedicated to the Balkan literary cities: incredible, sunken, lost, cities -temples and hamams, cities - pictures, or metaphysical cities - all of them Balkan, with a Balkan identity and urban culture. These are the cities of Vladislav Baiats, Nikos Kazandzakis, Orhan Pamuk, Ivo Andrich, Vera Mutafchieva, Boris Aprilov, Svetoslav Minkov, Angel Karaliychev, Konstantin Konstantinov, Said Faik.
Chapter 6 conceptualises Bridges as metaphors for the roads in the Balkans, as well as the myth of building living people into walls of structures, focusing on The bridge over the Drina by Ivo Andrich, The Bridge with the three arches by Ismail Kadare, and The Stone Bridge of Rosen by Angel Karaliychev.
The conclusion summarizes the perception of the Balkans as a Museum-peninsula, as a Balkan Utopian island, with a culture characterised by a steady persistent rhythm. Who are we and where do we belong: in Europe, in the Slavic world or in the Orient? Living on the edge, at the border, in a peninsula at the South-East tip of the continent, the Balkan cultures are united as outcasts, pushed far from the centre. The present book builds on the idea of Ivan Shishmanov about the national Bulgarian narrative as an integral part of the European and the Balkan narratives; and the ideas of Svetlozar Igov and Bogdan Bogdanov about Homo Balkanicus living at the crossroads of the Thracian myths, the historical and cultural geography of life in the peninsula with its planes, the sea and the mountains; with the idea of Bulgarian culture as an integral part of the Mediterranean cultural community. The most interesting aspect of the Balkan literary dialogues is their steady rhythm, which creates an illusion of rotation, as if each of the national Balkan literatures rotates on its axis slowly and monotonously, like a dervish in his transcendental sema dance. The Balkan cultures seem to envelop one another, looking into the depths of their souls. Sometimes they are blasphemous, rejecting their own nature, yet in love with the other. They are mired in hatred and feuds with themselves and with the others, absorbed in (im)possible communication with each other. And there is only a small step between love and hatred, understanding and misunderstanding at the crossroads between the Bosphorus, Troy, the Dardanelles, Egypt and Russia, Colchis and Caucasus. It happens that we, people from the Balkans, belong to three continents. Loud and quiet at the same time, our frantically active imagination is in open dialogue with the world.
Key words: the Balkans, contactology, imagology, comparative studies, common cultural storylines, Balkan myths and stereotypes, Homo Balkanicus, bridge, road, city, otherness and the double, garden, island, museum, utopia
УВОД – 5
ПЪРВА ГЛАВА БЕЗМЪЛВНИТЕ ЛИТЕРАТУРНИ ДИАЛОЗИ НА БАЛКАНИТЕ Литературната карта на Балканите. Идентификационни маркери. Балкански национални утопии и литературни сюжети. Балканският човек и неговите литературни стереотипи. Балканските бесове и комплекси. Силата на съдбата. Жребият е нашата същност.Тематични доминанти и клишета – 13
ВТОРА ГЛАВА РОМАНЪТ НА ИЗТОКА СЪС ЗАПАДА. ДРУГОСТТА И ДВОЙНИЧЕСТВОТО В ТРИ БАЛКАНСКИ РОМАНА ЗА ИЗТОКА И ЗАПАДА Другостта и смъртта. Властимащите – свои и чужди. Поетите и влюбените. Медиаторите. Женската гледна точка към историята. Граница, другост и двойничество. Любов и идентичност. Любов-двойничество. Идентификации и литературни влияния. Случаят Вера Мутафчиева и Saeculum Aureum на българския роман. „Случаят Джем” на Вера Мутафчиева, „Прокълнатият двор” на Иво Андрич и „Бялата крепост” на Орхан Памук – 84
ТРЕТА ГЛАВА ПЕСЕНТА ЗА МЪРТВИЯ БРАТ И ЛИТЕРАТУРНАТА Й ИНТЕРПРЕТАЦИЯ В ДВЕ ТВОРБИ ОТ БАЛКАНСКИТЕ ЛИТЕРАТУРИ Балканската рецепта на магическия реализъм. Братът и Сестрата – Изтокът и Западът – Жертвата и Спасението. Поемата на Пенчо Славейков „Чумави” и повестта „Кой доведе Дорунтина” на Исмаил Кадаре – 156
ЧЕТВЪРТА ГЛАВА БАЛКАНСКИТЕ ЛИТЕРАТУРНИ ГРАДИНИ Йовковите старопланински градини. Градината-завръщане на Вера Мутафчиева. Градината-държава, градината-писмо на Орхан Памук. Градини край морето и острови-градини на Халикарнас Балъкчъсъ, Никос Казандзакис – 192
ПЕТА ГЛАВА БАЛКАНСКИТЕ ЛИТЕРАТУРНИ ГРАДОВЕ Безподобният град на Вера Мутафчиева. Потъналият град, изгубеният град на Никос Казандзакис и Иво Андрич. Градът-хамам и храм на Владислав Баяц. Градът-картина на Орхан Памук и Саид Фаик. Метафизичният град на Светослав Минков, Константин Константинов, Ангел Каралийчев, Вера Мутафчиева – 253
ШЕСТА ГЛАВА МОСТОВЕ-ПЪТИЩА НА БАЛКАНИТЕ И МИТЪТ ЗА ВГРАЖДАНЕТО Иво Андрич „Мостът на Дрина”, Исмаил Кадаре „Мостът с трите свода”, Ангел Каралийчев „Росенският каменен мост” – 315
ВМЕСТО ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ Полуостровът-музей. Балканският остров Утопия или за остинантния ритъм на полуостровната балканска култура – 372